Appeal from the United States District Court
for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit.
No. 2:13-cr-20764-5—Paul D. Borman, District Judge.
Argued: October 4, 2017
Decided and Filed: November 30, 2017
Before: GIBBONS, COOK, and THAPAR, Circuit Judges.
JULIA SMITH GIBBONS, Circuit Judge. This appeal arises from the convictions of two
members of the Phantom Motorcycle Club (“PMC”), William Frazier and Christopher Odum.
The government brought various charges against these two appellants and twelve others in a
fifteen-count indictment. Although the case initially proceeded as a consolidated trial against all
defendants, Frazier and Odum were severed, and the case against them proceeded separately.
After a three-week trial, the jury convicted Frazier of two counts of assault with a dangerous
weapon in aid of racketeering, 18 U.S.C. § 1959(a)(3) (VICAR), and one count of use and carry
of a firearm during, and in relation to, a crime of violence, 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). Odum was
convicted of conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering, 18 U.S.C. § 1959(a)(5)
Frazier and Odum raise numerous challenges to their convictions on appeal. Specifically,
they assert several claims of insufficient evidence to sustain their convictions as well as claims of
improper venue, the improper admission of hearsay statements, and due process violations for
failure to call a witness or provide certain evidence to the defense. For the reasons addressed
below, we affirm the convictions.